What is Chaincode?¶
Chaincode is a program, written in Go, node.js, or Java that implements a prescribed interface. Chaincode runs in a secured Docker container isolated from the endorsing peer process. Chaincode initializes and manages ledger state through transactions submitted by applications.
A chaincode typically handles business logic agreed to by members of the network, so it may be considered as a “smart contract”. State created by a chaincode is scoped exclusively to that chaincode and can’t be accessed directly by another chaincode. However, within the same network, given the appropriate permission a chaincode may invoke another chaincode to access its state.
We offer two different perspectives on chaincode. One, from the perspective of an application developer developing a blockchain application/solution entitled Chaincode for Developers, and the other, Chaincode for Operators oriented to the blockchain network operator who is responsible for managing a blockchain network, and who would leverage the Hyperledger Fabric API to install and govern chaincode, but would likely not be involved in the development of a chaincode application.
Fabric Chaincode Lifecycle¶
The Fabric Chaincode Lifecycle is responsible for managing the installation of chaincodes and the definition of their parameters before a chaincode is used on a channel. Starting from the Fabric 2.0 Alpha, governance for chaincodes is fully decentralized: multiple organizations can use the Fabric Chaincode Lifecycle to come to agreement on the parameters of a chaincode, such as the chaincode endorsement policy, before the chaincode is used to interact with the ledger.
The new model offers several improvements over the previous lifecycle:
- Multiple organizations must agree to the parameters of a chaincode: In the release 1.x versions of Fabric, one organization had the ability to set parameters of a chaincode (for instance the endorsement policy) for all other channel members. The new Fabric chaincode lifecycle is more flexible since it supports both centralized trust models (such as that of the previous lifecycle model) as well as decentralized models requiring a sufficient number of organizations to agree on an endorsement policy before it goes into effect.
- Safer chaincode upgrade process: In the previous chaincode lifecycle, the upgrade transaction could be issued by a single organization, creating a risk for a channel member that had not yet installed the new chaincode. The new model allows for a chaincode to be upgraded only after a sufficient number of organizations have approved the upgrade.
- Easier endorsement policy updates: Fabric lifecycle allows you to change an endorsement policy without having to repackage or reinstall the chaincode. Users can also take advantage of a new default policy that requires endorsement from a majority of members on the channel. This policy is updated automatically when organizations are added or removed from the channel.
- Inspectable chaincode packages: The Fabric lifecycle packages chaincode in easily readable tar files. This makes it easier to inspect the chaincode package and coordinate installation across multiple organizations.
- Start multiple chaincodes on a channel using one package: The previous lifecycle defined each chaincode on the channel using a name and version that was specified when the chaincode package was installed. You can now use a single chaincode package and deploy it multiple times with different names on the same or different channel.
To learn how more about the new Fabric Lifecycle, visit Chaincode for Operators.
The new Fabric chaincode lifecycle in the v2.0 Alpha release is not yet feature complete. Specifically, be aware of the following limitations in the Alpha release:
- CouchDB indexes are not yet supported
- Chaincodes defined with the new lifecycle are not yet discoverable via service discovery
These limitations will be resolved after the Alpha release. To use the old lifecycle model to install and instantiate a chaincode, visit the v1.4 version of the Chaincode for Operators tutorial
You can use the Fabric chaincode lifecycle by creating a new channel and setting the channel capabilities to V2_0. You will not be able to use the old lifecycle to install, instantiate, or update a chaincode on a channels with V2_0 capabilities enabled. However, you can still invoke chaincode installed using the previous lifecycle model after you enable V2_0 capabilities. Migration from the previous lifecycle to the new lifecycle is not supported for the Fabric v2.0 Alpha.